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Thread: Encephalitozoon Cuniculi E.C

  1. #1
    Mama Doe
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    Default Encephalitozoon Cuniculi E.C

    http://wildlife1.wildlifeinformation...tozoonosis.htm

    Been reading about EC and found this link very informative, and have put some quotes below covering a few important points. But I sum it up as most rabbits have it but do not suffer any symptoms unless they have compromised immune systems. Its very difficult for humans to catch it, would need to have aids, be on chemo or other immune suppressant drugs and then ingest it. And they shed the spores before the symptoms not after. Here's the quotes.

    "The true incidence of clinical disease is unknown". (B609.2.w2)
    Most rabbits are asymptomatic. (B609.2.w2)
    Up to 80% of rabbits tested serologically positive for Encephalitozoon cuniculi in Europe and the United States. (B609.2.w2)
    In the UK, this disease is widespread in the domestic rabbit population - in clinically healthy pet rabbits the seroprevalence is thought to be around 52 %. (B601.11.w11, B603.4.w4)"


    "Rabbits that are showing clinical signs of this disease are no longer shedding spores as the spores are only shed for three weeks after infection. (B609.2.w2)"

    "Human Health Considerations
    Zoonotic potential particularly in immunosuppressed humans.*(B601.11.w11, B603.4.w4, B609.2.w2)*
    Primarily people with AIDs. (B603.4.w4, B614.10.w10)
    Clinicals findings
    Encephalitozoonisis can cause diarrhoea, keratoconjunctivitis and renal disease.*(B600.16.w16, B603.4.w4)
    It has also been associated with peritonitis. (B614.10.w10)
    Transmission
    Human susceptibility and mode of transmission is not clear. (B609.2.w2)
    Resistance is T-lymphocyte dependent so humans with CD4 T-lymphocyte deficiences are reported to be particularly susceptible to microsporidian infections as are patients who are on immunosuppressive drugs. (B602.20.w20)
    Infections in humans is thought to be mainly through environmental spore contamination, for example, via contaminated water sources. (B601.11.w11)
    There have been no reports or evidence of direct transmission of this disease from rabbits to humans (B601.11.w11, B614.10.w10) "although infections in humans have been shown to be the same strain that infects rabbits". (B601.11.w11)
    It has been shown that human strains may be transferred to rabbits. (B601.11.w11)
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  2. #2
    Wise Old Thumper Jack's-Jane's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Bea & Floss View Post
    http://wildlife1.wildlifeinformation...tozoonosis.htm

    Been reading about EC and found this link very informative, and have put some quotes below covering a few important points. But I sum it up as most rabbits have it but do not suffer any symptoms unless they have compromised immune systems. Its very difficult for humans to catch it, would need to have aids, be on chemo or other immune suppressant drugs and then ingest it. And they shed the spores before the symptoms not after. Here's the quotes.

    "The true incidence of clinical disease is unknown". (B609.2.w2)
    Most rabbits are asymptomatic. (B609.2.w2)
    Up to 80% of rabbits tested serologically positive for Encephalitozoon cuniculi in Europe and the United States. (B609.2.w2)
    In the UK, this disease is widespread in the domestic rabbit population - in clinically healthy pet rabbits the seroprevalence is thought to be around 52 %. (B601.11.w11, B603.4.w4)"


    "Rabbits that are showing clinical signs of this disease are no longer shedding spores as the spores are only shed for three weeks after infection. (B609.2.w2)"

    "Human Health Considerations
    Zoonotic potential particularly in immunosuppressed humans.*(B601.11.w11, B603.4.w4, B609.2.w2)*
    Primarily people with AIDs. (B603.4.w4, B614.10.w10)
    Clinicals findings
    Encephalitozoonisis can cause diarrhoea, keratoconjunctivitis and renal disease.*(B600.16.w16, B603.4.w4)
    It has also been associated with peritonitis. (B614.10.w10)
    Transmission
    Human susceptibility and mode of transmission is not clear. (B609.2.w2)
    Resistance is T-lymphocyte dependent so humans with CD4 T-lymphocyte deficiences are reported to be particularly susceptible to microsporidian infections as are patients who are on immunosuppressive drugs. (B602.20.w20)
    Infections in humans is thought to be mainly through environmental spore contamination, for example, via contaminated water sources. (B601.11.w11)
    There have been no reports or evidence of direct transmission of this disease from rabbits to humans (B601.11.w11, B614.10.w10) "although infections in humans have been shown to be the same strain that infects rabbits". (B601.11.w11)
    It has been shown that human strains may be transferred to rabbits. (B601.11.w11)

    Yep, but the spores remain viable for up to 30 days outside of the host. So transmission from Rabbit to Rabbit can readily happen given that shedding of spores happens BEFORE obvious signs of illness present.


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  3. #3
    Mama Doe
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    Quote Originally Posted by Jack's-Jane View Post
    Yep, but the spores remain viable for up to 30 days outside of the host. So transmission from Rabbit to Rabbit can readily happen given that shedding of spores happens BEFORE obvious signs of illness present.
    Mmm that makes it really tricky then, how do rescues minimise risks of spreading it or is it just that as most rabbits have it they are just extra careful with the buns that have compromised immune systems etc.
    BE THE CHANGE YOU WISH TO SEE IN THE WORLD
    Mahatma Ghandi

    Helping one is better than helping none

    “The time will come when men such as I will look upon the murder of animals as they now look on the murder of men.” -Leonardo da Vinci

  4. #4
    Wise Old Thumper Jack's-Jane's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Bea & Floss View Post
    Mmm that makes it really tricky then, how do rescues minimise risks of spreading it or is it just that as most rabbits have it they are just extra careful with the buns that have compromised immune systems etc.
    That is where there is, as yet, no consensus of opinion. Even Vets cant agree on the best protocol.

    My unqualified opinion is that in a multi Rabbit situation strict hygiene- paying particular attention to minimising ingestion of urine contaminated food/bedding, concrete based runs to enable bleach cleaning etc ,implementation of quarantine proceedures, one off 28 day course of Fenbendazole for all new intakes and vigilance re pest control (mice are vectors of EC).

    I may be tempting fate here and knowing my luck I probably am, but the above protocol seems to have resulted in no cases of active EC here for several years, even having taken on Rabbits with a previous history of active EC. Not exactly a large trial, but probably involving about 50 Rabbits.


    “If there ever comes a day when we can't be together, keep me in your heart. I'll stay there forever.”

    ― A.A. Milne

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